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Microcontroller Reverse Engineer Technology

How to Decompile a Chip Program

 

 

Introduction

A decompiler is a computer program that performs the reverse operation to that of a compiler. That is, it translates program code at a relatively low level of abstraction (usually designed to be computer readable rather than human readable) into a form having a higher level of abstraction (usually designed to be human readable). Decompilers usually do not perfectly reconstruct the original source code, and can vary widely in the intelligibility of their outputs. Nonetheless, decompilers remain an important tool in software reverse engineering.

 

The term decompiler is most commonly applied to a program which translates executable programs (the output from a compiler) into source code in a (relatively) high level language which, when compiled, will produce an executable whose behavior is the same as the original executable program. By comparison, a disassembler translates an executable program into assembly language (and an assembler could be used to assemble it back into an executable program).

 

Decompilation is the act of using a decompiler, although the term can also refer to the output of a decompiler. It can be used for the recovery of lost source code, and is also useful in some cases for computer security, interoperability and error correction.[1][unreliable source] The success of decompilation depends on the amount of information present in the code being decompiled and the sophistication of the analysis performed on it. The bytecode formats used by many virtual machines (such as the Java Virtual Machine or the .NET Framework Common Language Runtime) often include extensive metadata and high-level features that make decompilation quite feasible. presented by Chip Works Technology, The presence of debug data can make it possible to reproduce the original variable and structure names and even the line numbers. Machine language without such metadata or debug data is much harder to decompile.

 

Some compilers and post-compilation tools produce obfuscated code (that is, they attempt to produce output that is very difficult to decompile). This is done to make it more difficult to reverse engineer the executable.

 

Design

Decompilers can be thought of as composed of a series of phases each of which contributes specific aspects of the overall decompilation process.

 

Loader

The first decompilation phase loads and parses the input machine code or intermediate language program's binary file format. It should be able to discover basic facts about the input program, such as the architecture (Pentium, PowerPC, etc.) and the entry point. In many cases, it should be able to find the equivalent of the main function of a C program, which is the start of the user written code. presented by Chip Works Technology, This excludes the runtime initialization code, which should not be decompiled if possible. If available the symbol tables and debug data are also loaded. The front end may be able to identify the libraries used even if they are linked with the code, this will provide library interfaces. If it can determine the compiler or compilers used it may provide useful information in identifying code idioms.

 

Disassembly

The next logical phase is the disassembly of machine code instructions into a machine independent intermediate representation (IR). For example, the Pentium machine instruction

 

mov eax, [ebx+0x04]
might be translated to the IR

eax := m[ebx+4];

 

Idioms

Idiomatic machine code sequences are sequences of code whose combined semantics is not immediately apparent from the instructions' individual semantics. Either as part of the disassembly phase, or as part of later analyses, these idiomatic sequences need to be translated into known equivalent IR. For example, the x86 assembly code:

 

cdq eax ; edx is set to the sign-extension of eax
xor eax, edx
sub eax, edx
could be translated to

eax := abs(eax);


Some idiomatic sequences are machine independent; some involve only one instruction. For example, xor eax, eax clears the eax register (sets it to zero). This can be implemented with a machine independent simplification rule, such as a xor a = 0.

 

In general, it is best to delay detection of idiomatic sequences if possible, to later stages that are less affected by instruction ordering. For example, the instruction scheduling phase of a compiler may insert other instructions into an idiomatic sequence, or change the ordering of instructions in the sequence. A pattern matching process in the disassembly phase would probably not recognize the altered pattern. presented by Chip Works Technology, Later phases group instruction expressions into more complex expressions, and modify them into a canonical (standardized) form, making it more likely that even the altered idiom will match a higher level pattern later in the decompilation.

 

It is particularly important to recognize the compiler idioms for subroutine calls, exception handling, and switch statements. Some languages also have extensive support for strings or long integers.

 

Program analysis

Various program analyses can be applied to the IR. In particular, expression propagation combines the semantics of several instructions into more complex expressions. For example,

 

mov eax,[ebx+0x04]
add eax,[ebx+0x08]
sub [ebx+0x0C],eax
could result in the following IR after expression propagation:

 

m[ebx+12] := m[ebx+12] - (m[ebx+4] + m[ebx+8]);
The resulting expression is more like high level language, and has also eliminated the use of the machine register eax . Later analyses may eliminate the ebx register.

 

Data flow analysis

The places where register contents are defined and used must be traced using data flow analysis. The same analysis can be applied to locations that are used for temporaries and local data. A different name can then be formed for each such connected set of value definitions and uses. It is possible that the same local variable location was used for more than one variable in different parts of the original program. presented by Chip Works Technology. Even worse it is possible for the data flow analysis to identify a path whereby a value may flow between two such uses even though it would never actually happen or matter in reality. This may in bad cases lead to needing to define a location as a union of types. The decompiler may allow the user to explicitly break such unnatural dependencies which will lead to clearer code. This of course means a variable is potentially used without being initialized and so indicates a problem in the original program.

 

Type analysis

A good machine code decompiler will perform type analysis. Here, the way registers or memory locations are used result in constraints on the possible type of the location. For example, an and instruction implies that the operand is an integer; programs do not use such an operation on floating point values (except in special library code) or on pointers. An add instruction results in three constraints, since the operands may be both integer, or one integer and one pointer (with integer and pointer results respectively; the third constraint comes from the ordering of the two operands when the types are different).

 

Various high level expressions can be recognized which trigger recognition of structures or arrays. However, it is difficult to distinguish many of the possibilities, because of the freedom that machine code or even some high level languages such as C allow with casts and pointer arithmetic.

 

The example from the previous section could result in the following high level code:

 

struct T1 *ebx;
struct T1 {
int v0004;
int v0008;
int v000C;
};
ebx->v000C -= ebx->v0004 + ebx->v0008;

 

Structuring

The penultimate decompilation phase involves structuring of the IR into higher level constructs such as while loops and if/then/else conditional statements. For example, the machine code

 

xor eax, eax
l0002:
or ebx, ebx
jge l0003
add eax,[ebx]
mov ebx,[ebx+0x4]
jmp l0002
l0003:
mov [0x10040000],eax
could be translated into:

eax = 0;
while (ebx < 0) {
eax += ebx->v0000;
ebx = ebx->v0004;
}
v10040000 = eax;

 

Unstructured code is more difficult to translate into structured code than already structured code. Solutions include replicating some code, or adding boolean variables.

 

Code generation

The final phase is the generation of the high level code in the back end of the decompiler. Just as a compiler may have several back ends for generating machine code for different architectures, a decompiler may have several back ends for generating high level code in different high level languages.

 

Just before code generation, it may be desirable to allow an interactive editing of the IR, perhaps using some form of graphical user interface. This would allow the user to enter comments, and non-generic variable and function names. However, these are almost as easily entered in a post decompilation edit. The user may want to change structural aspects, such as converting a while loop to a for loop. presented by Chip Works Technology. These are less readily modified with a simple text editor, although source code refactoring tools may assist with this process. The user may need to enter information that failed to be identified during the type analysis phase, e.g. modifying a memory expression to an array or structure expression. Finally, incorrect IR may need to be corrected, or changes made to cause the output code to be more readable.

 

Legality

The majority of computer programs are covered by copyright laws. Although the precise scope of what is covered by copyright differs from region to region, copyright law generally provides the author (the programmer(s) or employer) with a collection of exclusive rights to the program.[6] These rights include the right to make copies, including copies made into the computer's RAM.[citation needed] Since the decompilation process involves making multiple such copies, it is generally prohibited without the authorization of the copyright holder. However, because decompilation is often a necessary step in achieving software interoperability, copyright laws in both the United States and Europe permit decompilation to a limited extent.

 

In the United States, the copyright fair use defense has been successfully invoked in decompilation cases. For example, in Sega v. Accolade, the court held that Accolade could lawfully engage in decompilation in order to circumvent the software locking mechanism used by Sega's game consoles.

 

In Europe, the 1991 Software Directive explicitly provides for a right to decompile in order to achieve interoperability. The result of a heated debate between, on the one side, software protectionists, and, on the other, academics as well as independent software developers, Article 6 permits decompilation only if a number of conditions are met:

  • First, a person or entity must have a license to use the program to be decompiled.

  • Second, decompilation must be necessary to achieve interoperability with the target program or other programs. Interoperability information should therefore not be readily available, such as through manuals or API documentation. This is an important limitation. The necessity must be proven by the decompiler. The purpose of this important limitation is primarily to provide an incentive for developers to document and disclose their products' interoperability information.

  • Third, the decompilation process must, if possible, be confined to the parts of the target program relevant to interoperability. Since one of the purposes of decompilation is to gain an understanding of the program structure, this third limitation may be difficult to meet. Again, the burden of proof is on the decompiler.

  • In addition, Article 6 prescribes that the information obtained through decompilation may not be used for other purposes and that it may not be given to others.

     

    Overall, the decompilation right provided by Article 6 codifies what is claimed to be common practice in the software industry. Few European lawsuits are known to have emerged from the decompilation right. This could be interpreted as meaning either one of three things: 1) the decompilation right is not used frequently and the decompilation right may therefore have been unnecessary, 2) the decompilation right functions well and provides sufficient legal certainty not to give rise to legal disputes or 3) illegal decompilation goes largely undetected. In a recent report regarding implementation of the Software Directive by the European member states, the European Commission seems to support the second interpretation.

     

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PIC18LF4523 PIC18LF4525 PIC18LF4539 PIC18LF4550 PIC18LF4553 PIC18LF458 PIC18LF4580 PIC18LF4585 PIC18LF45J10 PIC18LF45J11 PIC18LF45J50 PIC18LF45K20 PIC18LF45K22 PIC18LF45K50 PIC18LF45K80 PIC18LF4610 PIC18LF4620 PIC18LF4680 PIC18LF4682 PIC18LF4685 PIC18LF46J11 PIC18LF46J13 PIC18LF46J50 PIC18LF46J53 PIC18LF46K20 PIC18LF46K22 PIC18LF46K80 PIC18LF47J13 PIC18LF47J53 PIC18LF6310 PIC18LF6390 PIC18LF6393 PIC18LF63J11 PIC18LF63J90 PIC18LF6410 PIC18LF6490 PIC18LF6493 PIC18LF64J11 PIC18LF64J90 PIC18LF6520 PIC18LF6525 PIC18LF6527 PIC18LF6585 PIC18LF65J10 PIC18LF65J11 PIC18LF65J15 PIC18LF65J50 PIC18LF65J90 PIC18LF65J94 PIC18LF65K22 PIC18LF65K80 PIC18LF65K90 PIC18LF6620 PIC18LF6621 PIC18LF6622 PIC18LF6627 PIC18LF6628 PIC18LF6680 PIC18LF66J10 PIC18LF66J11 PIC18LF66J15 PIC18LF66J16 PIC18LF66J50 PIC18LF66J55 PIC18LF66J60 PIC18LF66J65 PIC18LF66J90 PIC18LF66J93 PIC18LF66J94 PIC18LF66J99 PIC18LF66K22 PIC18LF66K80 PIC18LF66K90 PIC18LF6720 PIC18LF6722 PIC18LF6723 PIC18LF67J10 PIC18LF67J11 PIC18LF67J50 PIC18LF67J60 PIC18LF67J90 PIC18LF67J93 PIC18LF67J94 PIC18LF67K22 PIC18LF67K90 PIC18LF8310 PIC18LF8390 PIC18LF8393 PIC18LF83J11 PIC18LF83J90 PIC18LF8410 PIC18LF8490 PIC18LF8493 PIC18LF84J11 PIC18LF84J90 PIC18LF8520 PIC18LF8525 PIC18LF8527 PIC18LF8585 PIC18LF85J10 PIC18LF85J11 PIC18LF85J15 PIC18LF85J50 PIC18LF85J90 PIC18LF85J94 PIC18LF85K22 PIC18LF85K90 PIC18LF8620 PIC18LF8621 PIC18LF8622 PIC18LF8627 PIC18LF8628 PIC18LF8680 PIC18LF86J10 PIC18LF86J11 PIC18LF86J15 PIC18LF86J16 PIC18LF86J50 PIC18LF86J55 PIC18LF86J60 PIC18LF86J65 PIC18LF86J72 PIC18LF86J90 PIC18LF86J93 PIC18LF86J94 PIC18LF86J99 PIC18LF86K22 PIC18LF86K90 PIC18LF8720 PIC18LF8722 PIC18LF8723 PIC18LF87J10 PIC18LF87J11 PIC18LF87J50 PIC18LF87J60 PIC18LF87J72 PIC18LF87J90 PIC18LF87J93 PIC18LF87J94 PIC18LF87K22 PIC18LF87K90 PIC18LF95J94 PIC18LF96J60 PIC18LF96J65 PIC18LF96J94 PIC18LF96J99 PIC18LF97J60 PIC18LF97J94 ...

    PIC24Fxx full series mcu firmware hack: PIC24EP128GP202 PIC24EP128GP204 PIC24EP128GP206 PIC24EP128MC202 PIC24EP128MC204 PIC24EP128MC206 PIC24EP256GP202 PIC24EP256GP204 PIC24EP256GP206 PIC24EP256GU810 PIC24EP256GU814 PIC24EP256MC202 PIC24EP256MC204 PIC24EP256MC206 PIC24EP32GP202 PIC24EP32GP203 PIC24EP32GP204 PIC24EP32MC202 PIC24EP32MC203 PIC24EP32MC204 PIC24EP512GP202 PIC24EP512GP204 PIC24EP512GP206 PIC24EP512GP806 PIC24EP512GU810 PIC24EP512GU814 PIC24EP512MC202 PIC24EP512MC204 PIC24EP512MC206 PIC24EP64GP202 PIC24EP64GP203 PIC24EP64GP204 PIC24EP64GP206 PIC24EP64MC202 PIC24EP64MC203 PIC24EP64MC204 PIC24EP64MC206 PIC24F04KA200 PIC24F04KA201 PIC24F04KL100 PIC24F04KL101 PIC24F08KA101 PIC24F08KA102 PIC24F08KL200 PIC24F08KL201 PIC24F08KL301 PIC24F08KL302 PIC24F08KL401 PIC24F08KL402 PIC24F08KM101 PIC24F08KM102 PIC24F08KM202 PIC24F08KM204 PIC24F16KA101 PIC24F16KA102 PIC24F16KA301 PIC24F16KA302 PIC24F16KA304 PIC24F16KL401 PIC24F16KL402 PIC24F16KM102 PIC24F16KM104 PIC24F16KM202 PIC24F16KM204 PIC24F32KA301 PIC24F32KA302 PIC24F32KA304 PIC24FJ128DA106 PIC24FJ128DA110 PIC24FJ128DA206 PIC24FJ128DA210 PIC24FJ128GA006 PIC24FJ128GA008 PIC24FJ128GA010 PIC24FJ128GA106 PIC24FJ128GA108 PIC24FJ128GA110 PIC24FJ128GA202 PIC24FJ128GA204 PIC24FJ128GA306 PIC24FJ128GA308 PIC24FJ128GA310 PIC24FJ128GB106 PIC24FJ128GB108 PIC24FJ128GB110 PIC24FJ128GB202 PIC24FJ128GB204 PIC24FJ128GB206 PIC24FJ128GB210 PIC24FJ128GC006 PIC24FJ128GC010 PIC24FJ16GA002 PIC24FJ16GA004 PIC24FJ16MC101 PIC24FJ16MC102 PIC24FJ192GA106 PIC24FJ192GA108 PIC24FJ192GA110 PIC24FJ192GB106 PIC24FJ192GB108 PIC24FJ192GB110 PIC24FJ256DA106 PIC24FJ256DA110 PIC24FJ256DA206 PIC24FJ256DA210 PIC24FJ256GA106 PIC24FJ256GA108 PIC24FJ256GA110 PIC24FJ256GB106 PIC24FJ256GB108 PIC24FJ256GB110 PIC24FJ256GB206 PIC24FJ256GB210 PIC24FJ32GA002 PIC24FJ32GA004 PIC24FJ32GA102 PIC24FJ32GA104 PIC24FJ32GB002 PIC24FJ32GB004 PIC24FJ32MC101 PIC24FJ32MC102 PIC24FJ32MC104 PIC24FJ48GA002 PIC24FJ48GA004 PIC24FJ64GA002 PIC24FJ64GA004 PIC24FJ64GA006 PIC24FJ64GA008 PIC24FJ64GA010 PIC24FJ64GA102 PIC24FJ64GA104 PIC24FJ64GA106 PIC24FJ64GA108 PIC24FJ64GA110 PIC24FJ64GA202 PIC24FJ64GA204 PIC24FJ64GA306 PIC24FJ64GA308 PIC24FJ64GA310 PIC24FJ64GB002 PIC24FJ64GB004 PIC24FJ64GB106 PIC24FJ64GB108 PIC24FJ64GB110 PIC24FJ64GB202 PIC24FJ64GB204 PIC24FJ64GC006 PIC24FJ64GC010 PIC24FJ96GA006 PIC24FJ96GA008 PIC24FJ96GA010 PIC24FV08KM101 PIC24FV08KM102 PIC24FV08KM202 PIC24FV08KM204 PIC24FV16KA301 PIC24FV16KA302 PIC24FV16KA304 PIC24FV16KM102 PIC24FV16KM104 PIC24FV16KM202 PIC24FV16KM204 PIC24FV32KA301 PIC24FV32KA302 PIC24FV32KA304 PIC24HJ128GP202 PIC24HJ128GP204 PIC24HJ128GP206 PIC24HJ128GP206A PIC24HJ128GP210 PIC24HJ128GP210A PIC24HJ128GP306 PIC24HJ128GP306A PIC24HJ128GP310 PIC24HJ128GP310A PIC24HJ128GP502 PIC24HJ128GP504 PIC24HJ128GP506 PIC24HJ128GP506A PIC24HJ128GP510 PIC24HJ128GP510A PIC24HJ12GP201 PIC24HJ12GP202 PIC24HJ16GP304 PIC24HJ256GP206 PIC24HJ256GP206A PIC24HJ256GP210 PIC24HJ256GP210A PIC24HJ256GP610 PIC24HJ256GP610A PIC24HJ32GP202 PIC24HJ32GP204 PIC24HJ32GP302 PIC24HJ32GP304 PIC24HJ64GP202 PIC24HJ64GP204 PIC24HJ64GP206 PIC24HJ64GP206A PIC24HJ64GP210 PIC24HJ64GP210A PIC24HJ64GP502 PIC24HJ64GP504 PIC24HJ64GP506 PIC24HJ64GP506A PIC24HJ64GP510 PIC24HJ64GP510A ...

    dsPIC33xx full series mcu read out: dsPIC33EP128GM304 dsPIC33EP128GM306 dsPIC33EP128GM310 dsPIC33EP128GM604 dsPIC33EP128GM706 dsPIC33EP128GM710 dsPIC33EP128GP502 dsPIC33EP128GP504 dsPIC33EP128GP506 dsPIC33EP128MC202 dsPIC33EP128MC204 dsPIC33EP128MC206 dsPIC33EP128MC502 dsPIC33EP128MC504 dsPIC33EP128MC506 dsPIC33EP256GM304 dsPIC33EP256GM306 dsPIC33EP256GM310 dsPIC33EP256GM604 dsPIC33EP256GM706 dsPIC33EP256GM710 dsPIC33EP256GP502 dsPIC33EP256GP504 dsPIC33EP256GP506 dsPIC33EP256MC202 dsPIC33EP256MC204 dsPIC33EP256MC206 dsPIC33EP256MC502 dsPIC33EP256MC504 dsPIC33EP256MC506 dsPIC33EP256MU806 dsPIC33EP256MU810 dsPIC33EP256MU814 dsPIC33EP32GP502 dsPIC33EP32GP503 dsPIC33EP32GP504 dsPIC33EP32MC202 dsPIC33EP32MC203 dsPIC33EP32MC204 dsPIC33EP32MC502 dsPIC33EP32MC503 dsPIC33EP32MC504 dsPIC33EP512GM304 dsPIC33EP512GM306 dsPIC33EP512GM310 dsPIC33EP512GM604 dsPIC33EP512GM706 dsPIC33EP512GM710 dsPIC33EP512GP502 dsPIC33EP512GP504 dsPIC33EP512GP506 dsPIC33EP512GP806 dsPIC33EP512MC202 dsPIC33EP512MC204 dsPIC33EP512MC206 dsPIC33EP512MC502 dsPIC33EP512MC504 dsPIC33EP512MC506 dsPIC33EP512MC806 dsPIC33EP512MU810 dsPIC33EP512MU814 dsPIC33EP64GP502 dsPIC33EP64GP503 dsPIC33EP64GP504 dsPIC33EP64GP506 dsPIC33EP64MC202 dsPIC33EP64MC203 dsPIC33EP64MC204 dsPIC33EP64MC206 dsPIC33EP64MC502 dsPIC33EP64MC503 dsPIC33EP64MC504 dsPIC33EP64MC506 dsPIC33FJ06GS001 dsPIC33FJ06GS101 dsPIC33FJ06GS101A dsPIC33FJ06GS102 dsPIC33FJ06GS102A dsPIC33FJ06GS202 dsPIC33FJ06GS202A dsPIC33FJ09GS302 dsPIC33FJ128GP202 dsPIC33FJ128GP204 dsPIC33FJ128GP206 dsPIC33FJ128GP206A dsPIC33FJ128GP306 dsPIC33FJ128GP306A dsPIC33FJ128GP310 dsPIC33FJ128GP310A dsPIC33FJ128GP706 dsPIC33FJ128GP706A dsPIC33FJ128GP708 dsPIC33FJ128GP708A dsPIC33FJ128GP710 dsPIC33FJ128GP710A dsPIC33FJ128GP802 dsPIC33FJ128GP804 dsPIC33FJ128MC202 dsPIC33FJ128MC204 dsPIC33FJ128MC506 dsPIC33FJ128MC506A dsPIC33FJ128MC510 dsPIC33FJ128MC510A dsPIC33FJ128MC706 dsPIC33FJ128MC706A dsPIC33FJ128MC708 dsPIC33FJ128MC708A dsPIC33FJ128MC710 dsPIC33FJ128MC710A dsPIC33FJ128MC802 dsPIC33FJ128MC804 dsPIC33FJ12GP201 dsPIC33FJ12GP202 dsPIC33FJ12MC201 dsPIC33FJ12MC202 dsPIC33FJ16GP101 dsPIC33FJ16GP102 dsPIC33FJ16GP304 dsPIC33FJ16GS402 dsPIC33FJ16GS404 dsPIC33FJ16GS502 dsPIC33FJ16GS504 dsPIC33FJ16MC101 dsPIC33FJ16MC102 dsPIC33FJ16MC304 dsPIC33FJ256GP506 dsPIC33FJ256GP506A dsPIC33FJ256GP510 dsPIC33FJ256GP510A dsPIC33FJ256GP710 dsPIC33FJ256GP710A dsPIC33FJ256MC510 dsPIC33FJ256MC510A dsPIC33FJ256MC710 dsPIC33FJ256MC710A dsPIC33FJ32GP101 dsPIC33FJ32GP102 dsPIC33FJ32GP104 dsPIC33FJ32GP202 dsPIC33FJ32GP204 dsPIC33FJ32GP302 dsPIC33FJ32GP304 dsPIC33FJ32GS406 dsPIC33FJ32GS606 dsPIC33FJ32GS608 dsPIC33FJ32GS610 dsPIC33FJ32MC101 dsPIC33FJ32MC102 dsPIC33FJ32MC104 dsPIC33FJ32MC202 dsPIC33FJ32MC204 dsPIC33FJ32MC302 dsPIC33FJ32MC304 dsPIC33FJ64GP202 dsPIC33FJ64GP204 dsPIC33FJ64GP206 dsPIC33FJ64GP206A dsPIC33FJ64GP306 dsPIC33FJ64GP306A dsPIC33FJ64GP310 dsPIC33FJ64GP310A dsPIC33FJ64GP706 dsPIC33FJ64GP706A dsPIC33FJ64GP708 dsPIC33FJ64GP708A dsPIC33FJ64GP710 dsPIC33FJ64GP710A dsPIC33FJ64GP802 dsPIC33FJ64GP804 dsPIC33FJ64GS406 dsPIC33FJ64GS606 dsPIC33FJ64GS608 dsPIC33FJ64GS610 dsPIC33FJ64MC202 dsPIC33FJ64MC204 dsPIC33FJ64MC506 dsPIC33FJ64MC506A dsPIC33FJ64MC508 dsPIC33FJ64MC508A dsPIC33FJ64MC510 dsPIC33FJ64MC510A dsPIC33FJ64MC706 dsPIC33FJ64MC706A dsPIC33FJ64MC710 dsPIC33FJ64MC710A dsPIC33FJ64MC802 dsPIC33FJ64MC804 ...

    PIC32xx full series mcu read out: PIC32MX110F016B PIC32MX110F016C PIC32MX110F016D PIC32MX120F032B PIC32MX120F032C PIC32MX120F032D PIC32MX130F064B PIC32MX130F064C PIC32MX130F064D PIC32MX150F128B PIC32MX150F128C PIC32MX150F128D PIC32MX210F016B PIC32MX210F016C PIC32MX210F016D PIC32MX220F032B PIC32MX220F032C PIC32MX220F032D PIC32MX230F064B PIC32MX230F064C PIC32MX230F064D PIC32MX250F128B PIC32MX250F128C PIC32MX250F128D PIC32MX320F032H PIC32MX320F064H PIC32MX320F128H PIC32MX320F128L PIC32MX330F064H PIC32MX330F064L PIC32MX340F128H PIC32MX340F128L PIC32MX340F256H PIC32MX340F512H PIC32MX350F128H PIC32MX350F128L PIC32MX350F256H PIC32MX350F256L PIC32MX360F256L PIC32MX360F512L PIC32MX420F032H PIC32MX430F064H PIC32MX430F064L PIC32MX440F128H PIC32MX440F128L PIC32MX440F256H PIC32MX440F512H PIC32MX450F128H PIC32MX450F128L PIC32MX450F256H PIC32MX450F256L PIC32MX460F256L PIC32MX460F512L PIC32MX534F064H PIC32MX534F064L PIC32MX564F064H PIC32MX564F064L PIC32MX564F128H PIC32MX564F128L PIC32MX575F256H PIC32MX575F256L PIC32MX575F512H PIC32MX575F512L PIC32MX664F064H PIC32MX664F064L PIC32MX664F128H PIC32MX664F128L PIC32MX675F256H PIC32MX675F256L PIC32MX675F512H PIC32MX675F512L PIC32MX695F512H PIC32MX695F512L PIC32MX764F128H PIC32MX764F128L PIC32MX775F256H PIC32MX775F256L PIC32MX775F512H PIC32MX775F512L PIC32MX795F512H PIC32MX795F512L

    dsPIC30Fxx full series mcu firmware hack: dsPIC30F1010 dsPIC30F2010 dsPIC30F2011 dsPIC30F2012 dsPIC30F2020 dsPIC30F2023 dsPIC30F3010 dsPIC30F3011 dsPIC30F3012 dsPIC30F3013 dsPIC30F3014 dsPIC30F4011 dsPIC30F4012 dsPIC30F4013 dsPIC30F5011 dsPIC30F5013 dsPIC30F5015 dsPIC30F5016 dsPIC30F6010 dsPIC30F6010A dsPIC30F6011 dsPIC30F6011A dsPIC30F6012 dsPIC30F6012A dsPIC30F6013 dsPIC30F6013A dsPIC30F6014 dsPIC30F6014A dsPIC30F6015 ...

    HCSxx series mcu firmware hack: HCS300 HCS301 HCS360 HCS361 HCS362 HCS412 HCS500 HCS512 HCS515 ...

 
 
     
 
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