Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American company that designs and makes semiconductors, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally. Headquartered at Dallas, Texas, United States, TI is the third largest manufacturer of semiconductors worldwide after Intel and Samsung, the second largest supplier of chips for cellular handsets after Qualcomm, and the largest producer of digital signal processors (DSPs) and analog semiconductors, among a wide range of other semiconductor products, including calculators, microcontrollers and multi-core processors. Texas Instruments is among the Top 20 Semiconductor producing companies in the world.
- Mikatech Texas Instuments TI MCU reverse engineer list:
- MSP430x1xx Series MCU copy protection attack: MSP430F1101 MSP430F1111 MSP430F1121 MSP430F1122 MSP430F1132 MSP430F122 MSP430F1222 MSP430F123 MSP430F1232 MSP430F133 MSP430F135 MSP430F147 MSP430F148 MSP430F1481 MSP430F149 MSP430F1491 MSP430F155 MSP430F156 MSP430F157 MSP430F167 MSP430F168 MSP430F169 ...
MSP430x2xx Series MCU copy protection attack: MSP430F2001 MSP430F2002 MSP430F2003 MSP430F2011 MSP430F2012 MSP430F2013 MSP430F2101 MSP430F2111 MSP430F2112 MSP430F2121 MSP430F2122 MSP430F2131 MSP430F2132 MSP430F2232 MSP430F2234 MSP430F2252 MSP430F2254 MSP430F2274 MSP430F233 MSP430F2330 MSP430F235 MSP430F2350 MSP430F2370 MSP430F2410 MSP430F2411 MSP430F2418 MSP430F2419 MSP430F247 MSP430F2471 MSP430F248 MSP430F249 MSP430F2491 MSP430F2611 MSP430F2617 MSP430F2618 MSP430F2619 ...
MSP430x4xx Series MCU copy protection attack: MSP430F412 MSP430F413 MSP430F415 MSP430F417 MSP430F425 MSP430F4250 MSP430F4260 MSP430F4270 MSP430F435 MSP430F436 MSP430F4361 MSP430F437 MSP430F4371 MSP430F447 MSP430F448 MSP430F449 MSP430F4783 MSP430F4784 MSP430F4789 MSP430F4794 ...
MSP430F5xx Series MCU copy protection read: MSP430F5418 MSP430F5418A MSP430F5419 MSP430F5419A MSP430F5435 MSP430F5435A MSP430F5436 MSP430F5436A MSP430F5437 MSP430F5437A MSP430F5438 MSP430F5438A MSP430F5500 MSP430F5501 MSP430F5502 MSP430F5503 MSP430F5504 MSP430F5505 MSP430F5506 MSP430F5507 MSP430F5508 MSP430F5509 MSP430F5510 MSP430F5513 MSP430F5514 MSP430F5515 MSP430F5517 MSP430F5519 MSP430F5521 MSP430F5522 MSP430F5524 MSP430F5525 MSP430F5526 MSP430F5527 MSP430F5528 MSP430F5529 ...
MSP430AFE221 MSP430AFE222 MSP430AFE223 MSP430AFE231 MSP430AFE232 MSP430AFE233 MSP430AFE251 MSP430AFE252 MSP430AFE253 MSP430BT5190 MSP430F2001 MSP430F2002 MSP430F2003 MSP430F2011 MSP430F2012 MSP430F2013 MSP430F2101 MSP430F2111 MSP430F2112 MSP430F2121 MSP430F2122 MSP430F2131 MSP430F2132 MSP430F2232 MSP430F2234 MSP430F2252 MSP430F2254 MSP430F2272 MSP430F2274 MSP430F233 MSP430F2330 MSP430F235 MSP430F2350 MSP430F2370 MSP430F4132 MSP430F4152 MSP430F423A MSP430F425A MSP430F427A MSP430F437 MSP430F4371 MSP430F438 MSP430F439 MSP430F447 MSP430F448 MSP430F4481 MSP430F449 MSP430F4491 MSP430F4616 MSP430F46161 MSP430F4617 MSP430F46171 MSP430F4618 MSP430F46181 MSP430F4619 MSP430F46191 MSP430F47126 MSP430F47127 MSP430F47163 MSP430F47166 MSP430F47167 MSP430F47173 MSP430F47176 MSP430F47177 MSP430F47183 MSP430F47186 MSP430F47187 MSP430F47193 MSP430F47196 MSP430F47197 MSP430F477 MSP430F478 MSP430F4783 MSP430F4784 MSP430F479 MSP430F4793 MSP430F4794 MSP430F5131 MSP430F5132 MSP430F5151 MSP430F5152 MSP430F5171 MSP430F5172 MSP430F5304 MSP430F5308 MSP430F5309 MSP430F5310 MSP430F5324 MSP430F5325 MSP430F5326 MSP430F5327 MSP430F5328 MSP430F5329 MSP430F5333 MSP430F5334 MSP430F5336 MSP430F5337 MSP430F5338 MSP430F5340 MSP430F5341 MSP430F5342 MSP430F5418 MSP430F5418A MSP430F5419 MSP430F5419A MSP430F5435 MSP430F5435A MSP430F5436 MSP430F5436A MSP430F5437 MSP430F5437A MSP430F5438 MSP430F5438A MSP430F5500 MSP430F5501 MSP430F5502 MSP430F5503 MSP430F5504 MSP430F5505 MSP430F5506 MSP430F5507 MSP430F5508 MSP430F5509 MSP430F5510 MSP430F5513 MSP430F5514 MSP430F5515 MSP430F5517 MSP430F5519 MSP430F5521 MSP430F5522 MSP430F5524 MSP430F5525 MSP430F5526 MSP430F5527 MSP430F5528 MSP430F5529 MSP430F5630 MSP430F5631 MSP430F5632 MSP430F5633 MSP430F5634 MSP430F5635 MSP430F5636 MSP430F5637 MSP430F5638 MSP430F6433 MSP430F6434 MSP430F6435 MSP430F6436 MSP430F6437 MSP430F6438 MSP430F6630 MSP430F6631 MSP430F6632 MSP430F6633 MSP430F6634 MSP430F6635 MSP430F6636 MSP430F6637 MSP430F6638 MSP430FE423 MSP430FE4232 MSP430FE423A MSP430FE4242 MSP430FE425 MSP430FE4252 MSP430FE425A MSP430FE427 MSP430FE4272 MSP430FE427A MSP430FG4616 MSP430FG4617 MSP430FG4618 MSP430FG4619 MSP430FG477 MSP430FG478 MSP430FG479 MSP430FW428 MSP430FW429 MSP430G2001 MSP430G2001 MSP430G2102 MSP430G2111 MSP430G2112 MSP430G2121 MSP430G2131 MSP430G2132 MSP430G2152 MSP430G2201 MSP430G2202 MSP430G2211 MSP430G2212 MSP430G2221 MSP430G2231 MSP430G2232 MSP430G2252 MSP430G2302 MSP430G2312 MSP430G2332 MSP430G2352 MSP430G2402 MSP430G2412 MSP430G2432 MSP430G2452 MSP430P112 ...
TMS320xx Series MCU copy protection read: TMS320F206 TMS320F243 TMS320F240 TMS320F241 TMS320LF2407 TMS320LF2403A TMS320LF2402A TMS320LF2407A TMS320LF2406A TMS320LF2401A TMS320LF2406 TMS320LF2402 ...
Texas Instruments was founded in 1951. It emerged after a reorganization of Geophysical Service. This company manufactured equipment for use in the seismic industry as well as defense electronics. TI began research in transistors in the early 1950s and produced the world's first commercial silicon transistor. In 1954, Texas Instruments designed and manufactured the first transistor radio and Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit in 1958 while working at TI's Central Research Labs. The company produced the first integrated circuit-based computer for the U.S. Air Force in 1961. TI researched infrared technology in the late 1950s and later made radar systems as well as guidance and control systems for both missiles and bombs. The hand-held calculator was introduced to the world by TI in 1967.
In the 1970s and 80s the company focused on consumer electronics including digital clocks, watches, hand-held calculators, home computers as well as various sensors. In 1997, its defense business was sold to Raytheon. In 2007, Texas Instruments was awarded the Manufacturer of the Year for Global Supply Chain Excellence by World Trade magazine. Texas Instruments is considered to be one of the most ethical companies in the world.
After the acquisition of National Semiconductor in 2011, the company has a combined portfolio of nearly 45,000 analog products and customer design tools, making it the world's largest maker of analog technology components. In 2011, Texas Instruments ranked 175 in the Fortune 500. TI is made up of two main divisions: Semiconductors (SC) and Educational Technology (ET) of which Semiconductor products account for approximately 96% of TI's revenue.
Entrance to Texas Instruments North Campus facility in Dallas, Texas.
Texas Instruments was founded by Cecil H. Green, J. Erik Jonsson, Eugene McDermott, and Patrick E. Haggerty in 1951. McDermott was one of the original founders of Geophysical Service in 1930. McDermott, Green, and Jonsson were GSI employees who purchased the company in 1941. In November, 1945, Patrick Haggerty was hired as general manager of the Laboratory and Manufacturing (L&M) division. By 1951, the L&M division, with its defense contracts, was growing faster than GSI's Geophysical division. The company was reorganized and initially renamed General Instruments Inc. Because there already existed a firm named General Instrument, the company was renamed Texas Instruments that same year. Geophysical Service Inc. became a subsidiary of Texas Instruments which it remained until early 1988, when most of GSI was sold to the Halliburton Company.
Texas Instruments exists to create, make and market useful products and services to satisfy the needs of its customers throughout the world.
— Patrick Haggerty, Texas Instruments Statement of Purpose
Geophysical Service Incorporated
TI's new signboard at its Dallas headquarters
In 1930, J. Clarence Karcher and Eugene McDermott founded Geophysical Service, an early provider of seismic exploration services to the petroleum industry. In 1939 the company reorganized as Coronado Corp., an oil company with Geophysical Service Inc (GSI), now as a subsidiary. On December 6, 1941, McDermott along with three other GSI employees, J. Erik Jonsson, Cecil H. Green, and H.B. Peacock purchased GSI. During World War II, GSI expanded their services to include electronics for the U.S. Army, Signal Corps, and the U.S. Navy. In 1951 the company changed its name to Texas Instruments, GSI becoming a wholly owned subsidiary of the new company.
An early success story for TI-GSI came in the 1950s when GSI was able (under a Top Secret government contract) to monitor the Soviet Union's underground nuclear weapons testing from outcrop bedrock found in Oklahoma.
Texas Instruments also continued to manufacture equipment for use in the seismic industry, and GSI continued to provide seismic services. After selling (and repurchasing) GSI, TI finally sold the company to Halliburton in 1988, at which point GSI ceased to exist as a separate entity.
Texas Instruments operated this Convair 240 on experimental work in the 1980s fitted with a modified extended nose section
Texas Instruments entered the defense electronics market in 1942 with submarine detection equipment, based on the seismic exploration technology previously developed for the oil industry. The division responsible for these products was known at different points in time as the Laboratory & Manufacturing Division, the Apparatus Division, the Equipment Group and the Defense Systems & Electronics Group (DSEG).
During the early 80s Texas Instruments instituted a quality program which included Juran training, as well as promoting Statistical process control, Taguchi methods and Design for Six Sigma. In the late 80s, the company, along with Eastman Kodak and Allied Signal, began involvement with Motorola institutionalizing Motorola's Six Sigma methodology. Motorola, who originally developed the Six Sigma methodology, began this work in 1982. In 1992 the DSEG division of Texas Instruments' quality improvement efforts were rewarded by winning the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award for manufacturing.
The following are some of the major programs of the former TI defense group.
Infrared and Radar systems
A Bolt-117, the first laser-guided bomb built by Texas Instruments.
An AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon.
TI developed the AAA-4 infra-red search and track (IRST) in the late 50's and early 60's for the F-4B Phantom for passive scanning of jet engine emissions but possessed limited capabilities and was eliminated on F-4D's and later models.
In 1956 TI began research on infrared technology that led to several line scanner contracts and with the addition of a second scan mirror the invention of the first forward looking infrared (FLIR) in 1963 with production beginning in 1966. In 1972 TI invented the Common Module FLIR concept, greatly reducing cost and allowing reuse of common components.
TI went on to produce side-looking radar systems, the first terrain following radar and surveillance radar systems for both the military and FAA. TI demonstrated the first solid-state radar called Molecular Electronics for Radar Applications (MERA). In 1976 TI developed a microwave landing system prototype. In 1984 TI developed the first inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR). The first single-chip gallium arsenide radar module was developed. In 1991 the Military Microwave Integrated Circuit (MIMIC) program was initiated – a joint effort with Raytheon.
Missiles and Laser-guided bombs
In 1961 TI won the guidance and control system contract for the defense suppression AGM-45 Shrike anti-radiation missile. This led later to the prime on the High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile (AGM-88 HARM) development contract in 1974 and production in 1981.
In 1964 TI began development of the first laser guidance system for precision-guided munitions (PGM) leading to the Paveway series of laser-guided bombs (LGB)s. The first LGB was the BOLT-117.
In 1969 TI won the Harpoon (missile) Seeker contract. In 1986 TI won the Army FGM-148 Javelin fire-and-forget man portable anti-tank guided missile in a joint venture with Martin Marietta. In 1991 TI was awarded the contract for the AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW).
See also: Military computers
Because of TI's research and development of military temperature range (silicon) transistors and integrated circuits (ICs), TI won contracts for the first IC-based computer for the U.S. Air Force in 1961 and for ICs for the Minuteman Missile the following year. In 1968 TI developed the data systems for Mariner Program. In 1991 TI won the F-22 Radar and Computer development contract.
Divestiture to Raytheon
As the defense industry consolidated, TI sold its defense business to Raytheon in 1997 for $2.95 billion. The Department of Justice required that Raytheon divest the TI Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) operations after closing the transaction. The TI MMIC business accounted for less than $40 million in 1996 revenues, or roughly two percent of the $1.8 billion in total TI defense revenues was sold to TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc. Raytheon retained its own existing MMIC capabilities and has the right to license TI's MMIC technology for use in future product applications from TriQuint.
Shortly after Raytheon acquired TI DSEG, Raytheon then acquired Hughes Aircraft from General Motors Raytheon then owned TI's mercury cadmium telluride detector business and Infrared (IR) systems group. In California, it also had Hughes infrared detector and an IR systems business. When again the US government forced Raytheon to divest itself of a duplicate capability, the company kept the TI IR systems business and the Hughes detector business. As a result of these acquisitions these former arch rivals of TI systems and Hughes detectors work together.
Immediately after acquisition, DSEG was known as Raytheon TI Systems (RTIS). It is now fully integrated into Raytheon and this designation no longer exists.
Early in 1952 Texas Instruments purchased a patent license to produce (germanium) transistors from Western Electric Co., the manufacturing arm of AT&T, for $25,000, beginning production by the end of the year.
On January 1, 1953, Haggerty brought Gordon Teal to the company as a research director. Gordon brought with him his expertise in growing semiconductor crystals. Teal's first assignment was to organize what became TI's Central Research Laboratories (CRL), which Teal based on his prior experience at Bell Labs.
Among his new hires was Willis Adcock who joined TI early in 1953. Adcock, who like Teal was a physical chemist, began leading a small research group focused on the task of fabricating "grown-junction silicon single-crystal small-signal transistors. Adcock later became the first TI Principal Fellow.
First silicon transistor and integrated circuits
On January 26, 1954, M Tanenbaum et al. at Bell Labs created the first workable silicon transistor. This work was reported in the spring of 1954 at the IRE off-the-record conference on Solid State Devices and later published in the Journal of Applied Physics, 26, 686–691(1955). Working independently in April 1954, Gordon Teal at TI created the first commercial silicon transistor and tested it on April 14, 1954. On May 10, 1954 at the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) National Conference on Airborne Electronics, in Dayton, Ohio. Teal also presented a paper, "Some Recent Developments in Silicon and Germanium Materials and Devices," at this conference.
In 1954, Texas Instruments designed and manufactured the first transistor radio. The Regency TR-1 used germanium transistors, as silicon transistors were much more expensive at the time. This was an effort by Haggerty to increase market demand for transistors.
Transistorized "logic" chip, an integrated circuit produced by TI
Jack Kilby, an employee at TI's Central Research Labs, invented the integrated circuit in 1958. Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958 and successfully demonstrated the world's first working integrated circuit on September 12, 1958. Six months later Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor (who went on to co-found Intel) independently developed the integrated circuit with integrated interconnect, and is also considered an inventor of the integrated circuit. Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for his part of the invention of the integrated circuit. Noyce's chip, made at Fairchild, was made of silicon, while Kilby's chip was made of germanium. In 2008 TI named its new development laboratory "Kilby Labs" after Jack Kilby.
In 2011, Intel, Samsung, LG, ST-Ericsson, Huawei's HiSilicon Technologies subsidiary, Via Telecom and three other undisclosed chipmakers licensed the C2C link specification developed by Arteris Inc. and Texas Instruments.
Texas Instruments and other brands of 7400 series TTL and CMOS logic.
Texas Instruments Speak & Spell using a TMC0280 speech synthesizer.
TI-30 electronic calculator, 1976
The 7400 series of transistor-transistor logic (TTL) chips, developed by Texas Instruments in the 1960s, popularized the use of integrated circuits in computer logic. The military grade version of this was the 5400 series.
Texas Instruments invented the hand-held calculator (a prototype called "Cal Tech") in 1967 and the single-chip microcomputer in 1971, and was assigned the first patent on a single-chip microprocessor (invented by Gary Boone) on September 4, 1973. This was disputed by Gilbert Hyatt, formerly of the Micro Computer Company, in August 1990 when he was awarded a patent superseding TI's. This was over-turned on June 19, 1996 in favor of TI. (Note: Intel is usually given credit with Texas Instruments for the almost-simultaneous invention of the microprocessor.)
First speech synthesis chip
In 1978, Texas Instruments introduced the first single-chip LPC speech synthesizer. In 1976 TI began a feasibility study memory intensive applications for bubble memory then being developed. They soon focused on speech applications. This resulted in the development the TMC0280 one-chip Linear predictive coding (LPC) speech synthesizer which was the first time a single silicon chip had electronically replicated the human voice. This was used in several TI commercial products beginning with Speak & Spell which was introduced at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1978. In 2001 TI left the speech synthesis business, selling it to Sensory Inc. of Santa Clara, California.
Consumer electronics and computers
In May 1954, Texas Instruments designed and built a prototype of the world's first transistor radio, and, through a partnership with Industrial Development Engineering Associates (I.D.E.A.) of Indianapolis, Indiana, the 100% solid-state radio was sold to the public beginning in November of that year.
TI continued to be active in the consumer electronics market through the 1970s and 1980s. Early on this also included two digital clock models one for desk and the other a bedside alarm. From this sprang what became the Time Products Division with the LED watches. Though these LED watches enjoyed early commercial success thanks to excellent quality, it was short lived due to poor battery life. LEDs were replaced with LCD watches for a short time but these could not compete because of styling issues, excessive makes and models, and price points. The watches were manufactured in Dallas and then Lubbock Texas. In 1978, Texas Instruments introduced the first single chip speech synthesizer and incorporated it in a product called Speak & Spell, which was later immortalized in the movie E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Several spin-offs, such as the Speak & Read and Speak & Math, were introduced soon thereafter.
In 1979, TI entered the home computer market with the TI99/4, a competitor to such entries as the Apple II, Tandy/RadioShack TRS-80 and the later Atari 400/800 series, Commodore VIC-20 and Commodore 64. It discontinued the TI-99/4A (1981), the sequel to the 99/4, in late 1983 amidst an intense price war waged primarily against Commodore. At the 1983 Winter CES, TI showed models 99/2 and the Compact Computer 40 (CC-40), the latter aimed at professional users. The TI Professional (1983) ultimately joined the ranks of the many unsuccessful DOS and x86-based—but non-compatible—competitors to the IBM PC. (The founders of Compaq, an early leader in PC compatibles, all came from TI.) The company for years successfully made and sold PC-compatible laptops before withdrawing from the market and selling its product line to Acer in 1997.
Texas Instruments was active in the 1980s in the area of artificial intelligence. It developed and sold the Explorer computer family of LISP machines. For the Explorer a special 32bit LISP microprocessor was developed, which was used in the Explorer II and the TI MicroExplorer (a LISP Machine on a NuBus board for the Apple Macintosh).
Sensors and controls
Texas Instruments was a major OEM of sensor, control, protection, and RFID products for the automotive, appliance, aircraft, and other industries. The S&C division was headquartered in Attleboro, Massachusetts.
In 2006, Bain Capital LLC, a private equity firm, purchased the Sensors & Controls division for $3.0 billion in cash. The RFID portion of the division remained part of TI, transferring to the Application Specific Products business unit of the Semiconductor division, with the newly formed independent company based in Attleboro taking the name Sensata Technologies.
TI sold its software division (along with its main product, the IEF) to Sterling Software in 1997. It is now part of Computer Associates. TI still owns small pieces of software though such as the software for calculators like TI Interactive!. TI also creates a significant amount of target software for its digital signal processors, along with host based tools for creating DSP applications.
Today, TI is made up of three divisions: Semiconductors (SC), Educational Technology (ET), and Digital Light Processing (DLP).
Semiconductor products account for approximately 96 percent of TI's revenues. TI's semiconductor-related product areas include digital signal processors in the TMS320 series, high speed digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, power management solutions, and high performance analog circuits.
TI’s Wireless Business Unit (WBU) produces wireless solutions for products such as smartphones and eBooks, tablets, consumer electronics and other portable devices. Wireless communications has been a primary focus for TI, with around 50 percent of all cellular phones sold worldwide containing TI chips.
The Mixed Signal Automotive group is a business unit that manufactures mixed signal and analog solutions for transportation and automotive applications. In the power space, this unit produces DC/DC Controllers and Converters, LDOs (Low Dropout Voltage Regulators), Voltage References and Voltage Supervisors. In the networking space, MSA has solutions for CAN and LIN. Safety-related solutions include airbags and anti-lock braking.
Digital Light Processing is a trademark under which Texas Instruments sells technology regarding TVs, video projectors and digital cinema: on February 2, 2000, Philippe Binant, technical manager of Digital Cinema Project at Gaumont in France, realized the first digital cinema projection in Europe with the DLP CINEMA technology developed by TI.
Another business unit of the Semiconductor division called Application Specific Products (ASP) develops specific products that cater to a broad range of DSP applications, such as digital still cameras, cable modems, Voice over IP (VOIP), streaming media, speech compression and recognition, wireless LAN and gateway products (residential and central office), and RFID.
TI makes a broad range of digital signal processors and a suite of tools called eXpressDSP, used to develop applications on these chips.
Microcontrollers and processors
Texas Instruments maintains several lines of processors, including the Sitara ARM processor family featuring ARM Cortex-A8 and ARM9 to serve a broad base of applications.
Texas Instruments also offers a portfolio of microcontrollers, including:
MSP430: low cost, low power consumption, and general purpose 16-bit MCU for use in embedded applications
TMS320C2xxx: 16 and 32 bit MCU family optimized for real-time control applications.
C24X: 16 bit, fixed point, 20 to 40 MHz
C28X: 32 bit, fixed or floating point, 100 to 150 MHz
Stellaris ARM Cortex-M3 based 32-bit MCU family
Hercules: Transportation and Industrial safety MCU's based on the Cortex-R4F and Cortex-M3
In the past, TI has also sold microcontrollers based on ARM7 (TMS470) and 8051 cores.
In addition to its microcontrollers, Texas Instruments also produces several multi-core processor lines.
OMAP systems-on-chips (SoC's) are designed for low-powered applications, and originally targeted mobile phones. As a rule they contain an ARM application processor (currently Cortex-A8, previously ARM11 or ARM9), a DSP (currently C64x, previously often C55), and sometimes other cores.
DaVinci SoC's contain a C64 series DSP core, an ARM9 core for applications processing, and specialized video processing peripherals.