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Introduction to Reverse Engineering Software

Chapter 5. Determining Interesting Functions

Clearly without source code, we can't possibly hope to understand all of sections of an entire program. So we have to use various methods and guess work to narrow down our search to a couple of key functions.

Reconstructing function & control information

The problem is that first, we must determine what portions of the code are actually functions. This can be difficult without debugging symbols. Fortunately, there are a couple of utilities that make our lives easier.


Objdump's most useful purpose is to disassemble a program with the -d switch. Lacking symbols, this output is a bit more cryptic. The -j option is used to specify a segment to disassemble. Most likely we will want .text, which is where all the program code lies.

Note that the leftmost column of objdump contains a hex number. This is in fact the actual address in memory where that instruction is located. Its binary value is given in the next column, followed by its mnemonic.

objdump -T will give us a listing of all library functions this program calls.


Steve Barker wrote a neat little perl script that makes objdump much more legible in the event that symbols are not included. The script has since been extended and improved by myself and Nasko Oskov. It now makes 3 passes through the output. The first pass builds a symbol table of called and jumped-to locations. The second pass finds areas between two rets, and inserts them into the symbol table as "unused" functions. The third pass prints out the nicely labeled output, and prints out a function call tree. Usage:

./disasm /path/to/binary > binary.asminfo

There are/will be few command line options to the utility. Now --graph is supported. It will generate a file called call_graph that contains definition that can be used with a program called dot to generate visual representation of the call graph.

Note: Unused functions just mean that that function wasn't called DIRECTLY. It is still possible that a function was called through a function pointer (ie, main is called this way)

Consider the objective

Ok, so now we're getting ready to get really down and dirty. The first step to finding what you are looking for is to know what you are looking for. Which functions are 'interesting' is entirely dependent on your point of view. Are you looking for copy protection? How do you suspect it is done. When in the program execution does it show up? Are you looking to do a security audit of the program? Is there any sloppy string usage? Which functions use strcmp, sprintf, etc? Which use malloc? Is there a possibility of improper memory allocation?

Finding key functions

If we can narrow down our search to just a few functions that are relevant to our objective, our lives should be much easier.

Finding main()

Regardless of our objective, it is almost always helpful to know where main() lies. Unfortunately, when debugging symbols are removed, this is not always easy.

In Linux, program execution actually begins at the location defined by the _start symbol, which is provided by gcc in the crt0 libraries (check gcc -v for location). Execution then continues to __libc_start_main(), which calls _init() for each library in the program space. Each _init() then calls any global constructors you may have in that particular library. Global constructors can be created by making global instances of C++ classes with a constructor, or by specifying __attribute__((constructor)) after a function prototype. After this, execution is finally transferred to main through an indirect call off of the base register ebp.

The easiest technique is to try to use our friends ltrace and gdb (FIXME: the debugging chapter has been moved to after this one..) together with our disassembled output. Checking the return address of the first few functions of ltrace -i, and cross referencing that to our assembly output and function call tree should give us a pretty good idea where main is. We may have to try to trick the program into exiting early, or printout out an error message before it gets too deep into its call stack.

Other techniques exist. For example, we can LD_PRELOAD a .c file with a constructor function in it. We can then set a breakpoint to a libc function that it calls that is also in the main executable, and finish and stepi until we are satisfied that we have found main.

Even better, we could just set a breakpoint in the function __libc_start_main (which is a libc function, and thus we will always have a symbol for it), and do the same technique of finishing and stepping until we reach what looks like main to us.

At worst, even without a frame pointer, we should be able to get the address of a function early enough in the execution chain for us to consider it to be main.

Finding other interesting functions

Its probably a good idea to make a list of all functions that call exit. These may be of use to us. Other techniques for tracking down interesting functions include:

  1. Checking for which functions call obscure gui construction widgets used in a dialog box asking for a product serial number

  2. Checking the string references to find out which functions reference strings that we are interested in. For example, if a program outputs the text "Already registered." knowing what function outputs this string is helpful in figuring out the protection this particular program uses.

  3. Running a program in gdb, then hitting control C when it begins to perform some interesting operation. using stepi N should slow things down and allow you to be more accurate. Sometimes this is too slow however. Find a commonly called function, set a breakpoint, and try doing cont N.

  4. Checking which functions call functions in the BSD socket layer

Plotting out program flow

Plot out execution paths into a tree from main, especially to your function(s) of interest. You can use disasm.pl to generate call graphs with the --graph option. Using it enables the script to generate file called call_graph. It contains definition of the call graph in a format used by a popular graphing tool called dot. Feeding this definition file in dot will give you a nice (probably pretty huge) graphics file with visual representation of the call graph. It is pretty amazing. Definitely try it with some small program.

Further analysis will have to hold off until we understand some assembly.

Chapter 6. Understanding Assembly

Since the output of all of these tools is in AT&T syntax, those of you who know Intel/MASM syntax have a bit of re-learning to do.

Assembly language is one step closer to the hardware than high level languages like C and C++. So to understand assembly, you have to understand how the hardware works. Lets start with a set of memory locations known as the CPU registers.


Registers are like the local variables of the CPU, except there are a fixed number of them. For the ix86 CPU, there are only 4 main registers for doing integer calculations: A, B, C, and D. Each of these 4 registers can be accessed 4 different ways: as a 32 bit value (%eax), as a 16 bit value (%ax), and as a low and a high 8 bit value (%al and %ah). There are five more registers that you will see used occasionally - namely SI, DI, SP and BP. SI and DI are around from the DOS days when people used 64k segmented addressing, and as it turns out, may be used as integer like normal registers now. SP and BP are two special registers used to handle an area of memory called the stack. There is one last register, the instruction pointer IP that you may not modify directly, but is changed through jmps and calls. Its value is the address of the next instruction to execute. (FIXME: Check this)

Note: If gcc was called with the -fomit-frame-pointer, the BP register is freed up to be used as an extra integer register.

The stack

What is A stack?

A stack is what is called a Last In, First Out data structure or LIFO. Think of it as a stack of plates. The most recent (last) plate pushed on top of the stack is the first one to be removed. This allows us to manage the stack with only one register if need be, namely the stack pointer or SP register.

What is THE stack?

The stack is a region of memory that is present throughout the entire lifetime of a program. It is where local variables are stored, and it is also how function call arguments are passed.

On almost all modern computers, the stack is said to grow down, that is, as elements are pushed on to it, the SP register is decremented by the size of the element pushed. From our earlier analogy, its as if the stack of plates where hung from the ceiling, new plates were inserted at the bottom, and the whole stack some sort of catch to stop them all from dumping out. That catch would be the SP register.

So the stack starts from a high memory address, and works down to a lower address. This is because another section of memory called the heap grows up, and its handy to have the two of them grow towards eachother to fill in a single empty hole in the program address space.

Note: It is easy to become confused when dealing with the stack. Remember that while it may grow down, variables are still addressed sequentially upwards. So an array of char b[4] at esp of 80 will have b[0] at 80 (right at the stack pointer), b[1] above that at 81, b[2] at 82, and b[3] at 83, which is where the stack pointer was before the push. The next push will then place the stack pointer at 76.

Working with the stack

There are two instructions that deal with the stack directly: push and pop. Each take a register or value as an argument. Push will place its argument onto the stack, and then decrement the SP by the size of its argument (4 for pushl, 2 for pushw, 1 for pushb). //FIXME (What is pushl and push b) Pop copies the value on the top of the stack into its argument, then increments SP. Pusha and popa push and pop all the registers with one instruction. Because of speed considerations, the value is not touched, just the SP register is changed to point to the next location ot the stack. So SP is always pointing to the top value of the stack and not at invalid memory.

Normal arithmetic expressions can also be used to modify SP to make space for working directly with stack memory with other instructions.

How gcc works with the stack

Right before a function is called, its arguments are pushed onto the stack in reverse order. Then the call instruction pushes the address of the next instruction (ie the value of IP after call) onto the stack, and then the CPU begins executing the address of the call by copying that value into the invisible instruction pointer (IP) register.

The called function then starts with what is known as the function prolog, which pushes the current base pointer onto the stack, and then copies the current stack pointer to the base pointer, and then subtracts from SP enough space to hold all local variables (and then some!). The base pointer is then used to reference variables and parameters during function execution, since its value is not affected by pushes and pops. Thus, parameters all have fixed positive offsets from the BP, where as local variables all have fixed negative offsets from the BP.

At the end of function execution, the base pointer is copied to the stack pointer during ret, and the return address is popped off the stack and placed into the invisible IP register to return to the caller function.

Note: Unless -fomit-frame-pointer is specified, gcc always generates code that references local variables by negative offsets from the BP instead of positive offsets from the SP.

Two's complement

What is it?

Two's complement is specific way signed integers are represented in pretty much all modern computers. This is due to the fact that two's complement form has several advantages:

  1. The same rules for addition apply, no extra work is required to compute the sum of negative integers.

  2. Easy to negate a number.

  3. The most significant bit tells you the sign: 0 is positive, 1 is negative.

It should be noted that when using signed values the ranges of number that can be represented by a specific number of bits is less than the usual. The range is -(2n-1) to +(2n-1)-1


There are several ways to convert any unsigned binary number into signed two's complement form. The most intuitive and easy to remember is the following Complement each bit of the number and add one. Let's find how -13 is represented, so we convert it into its binary form:

0000 1101
Then invert all the bits.
1111 0010
Now add one to it.
1111 0011
So 1111 0011 is -13 in two's complement.

Second method is to complement all the bits to the left of the rightmost 1 bit, but not including it (but not the rightmost bit, for example 0001 0100). It sounds a bit complicated, but is easier once you figure out how it is done. Let's get back to the example of -13.

0000 1101
Invert the bits to the left of the rightmost one.
1111 0011

There you go. We get the number without second step of adding one. It can be proven why this method works, but we are not in class. Yet a third method is to subtract the number from 2n. Here is how it works.

 1000 0000
 0000 1101
 1111 0011

There may be other ways of doing it, but if you master those, you will not need to remember any more. To convert a negative number in two's complement, you apply the exact same procedure as described and you get back the positive value for the number.

From reverse engineering angle

Now that we know what two's complement is let's look at some examples of this type of representation in reverse engineering process. Using one of the tools discussed earlier, objdump and the wrapper disasm.pl, let's look at the ls command binary. If you look at function7 (which starts at address 80495a8), lines like the following appear frequently:

 80495be:       83 c4 f8                add    $0xfffffff8,%esp

What does this instruction do? It just adds some constant to the stack pointer register (%esp). There are two ways you can look at this constant. It is either a huge unsigned number or two's complement negative number. Since we just add to the stack pointer, it does not make sense to be big number, so let's find what is the value of this number.

  f    f    f    f    f    f    f    8
1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1000
0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1000
  0    0    0    0    0    0    0    8

Now we can see that this is just the negative of 0x00000008 or just plain -8 in decimal. If you think about this, what this line does is decrement the stack pointer by 8 bytes (allocate more space).

Byte Ordering

One common difficulty in working on multiple platforms is that different platforms use different byte orders. Byte ordering refers to the physical layout of integer data in memory. There are two different orderings - little endian and big endian. When a data structure or data type is represented by more than one byte, the ordering of bytes matters. For example if we consider a long (4 bytes) let's label the least significant byte 0 and the most significant one 3. If we are on little endian machine the long will be represented in memory like this (yeah, some machines do not allow addressable bytes, but let's forget about this):

     0x040   0
     0x041   1
     0x042   2
     0x043   3

On a big endian machine on the other hand, the long will be layed out like that:

     0x040   3
     0x041   2
     0x042   1
     0x043   0

Now let's look at an example. The easiest way to see the difference in byte ordering is to look at how a long is stored in memory on different architectures. Here is an example program that will demonstrate it.

#include <stdio.h>
int main() {
    long longval = 123456789;
    printf("%s\n", test);

After compiling it with debugging info, let's run it and see what will be the result. The first run is on Intel-based machine.

bash$ uname -a 
Linux slack 2.4.20 #5 Tue Dec 31 00:01:00 CST 2002 i686 unknown

bash$ gdb ./a.out 
GNU gdb 5.2.1
This GDB was configured as "i386-slackware-linux"...
(gdb) break main
Breakpoint 1 at 0x8048338: file test.c, line 5.
(gdb) run
Breakpoint 1, main () at test.c:5
5               long longval = 123456789;
(gdb) stepi
8               printf("value is %d\n", longval);
Let's get the address of longval in memory
(gdb) print &longval
$2 = (long int *) 0xbffff234
Let's print the contents of longval as a word
(gdb) x/w 0xbffff234
0xbffff234:     0x075bcd15
Let's print the contents of longval as 4 consecutive bytes
(gdb) x/4b 0xbffff234
0xbffff234:     0x15    0xcd    0x5b    0x07
(gdb) quit

The second run was on Sparc machine running Solaris.

remsun1> uname -a 
SunOS remsun1 5.8 Generic_108528-16 sun4u sparc SUNW,Sun-Fire-280R

remsun1> gdb ./a.out 
GNU gdb 4.18
This GDB was configured as "sparc-sun-solaris2.7"...
(gdb) break main
Breakpoint 1 at 0x10564: file test.c, line 5.
(gdb) run
Breakpoint 1, main () at test.c:5
5               long longval = 123456789;
(gdb) stepi
0x10568 5               long longval = 123456789;
Let's get the address of longval in memory
(gdb) print &longval
$1 = (long int *) 0xffbefaec
Let's print the contents of longval as a word
(gdb) x/1w 0xffbefaec
0xffbefaec:     0x075bcd15
Let's print the contents of longval as 4 consecutive bytes
(gdb) x/4b 0xffbefaec
0xffbefaec:     0x07    0x5b    0xcd    0x15

One can clearly see how on the Sparc machine the individual bytes are in the same order as in the printed word, whereas the Intel machine has it reverse.

This is the difference in byte ordering. In order for different hosts on the same network to be able to communicate and the exchanged data to make sense, they agree on common byte ordering. In modern networking the data is transmitted in big endian byte ordering i.e. most significant byte comes first. On the i80x86 the host byte order is Least Significant Byte first, whereas the network byte order, as used on the Internet, is Most Significant Byte first.

Reading Assembly

Keep track of the stack and registers

The secret to understanding assembly code is to always work with a sheet of paper and a pencil. When you first sit down, draw out a table for all 6 registers A, B, C, D, SI, and DI. Keep track of the high and low portions as well. Each new line of this table should represent a modification of a register, so the last value in each register column is the current value of that register.

Next, draw out a long column for the stack, and leave space on the sides to place the BP and SP registers as they move down. Be sure to write all values into the stack as they are placed there, including ret and the stored BP.

AT&T syntax

In AT&T syntax, all instructions are of the form:

mnemonic src, dest

Standalone numerical constants are prepended with a $. Hexadecimal numbers always start with 0x (as opposed to ending in h). Registers are specified with a % sign, ie %eax.

Dereferencing or pointer representation is of the form disp(%base, %index, scale), where the resulting address is disp + %base + %index*scale. disp and scale are constants (no $), and %base and %index are registers. Any of these 4 may be omitted, leaving either blank space and then a comma, or simply leaving off the argument, and all remaining arguments. For example, 4(%eax) means memory address 4+%eax, where as (,%eax,4) means %eax*4. This compact notation makes array indexing easy.

Intel Instruction Set

From here, it is simply a matter of understanding what each assembly mnemonic does. Most common mnemonics are obvious, but you can find a complete description of all the Intel instructions (in agonizing detail) at Intel's Developer Site. Volume 2 contains the instruction list. Keep in mind that in Intel syntax, operands are in the reverse order of AT&T syntax (ie, mnemonic dest,src).

Know Your Compiler

In order to learn to read assembly effectively, you really have to know what type of code your compiler likes to generate in certain situations. If you learn to recognize what a while loop, a for loop, an if-else statement all look like in assembly, you can learn to get a general feel for code more quickly. There are also a few tricks that GCC performs that may seem unintuitive at first to the neophyte reverse engineer, even if they already know how to forward-engineer in assembly.

Basic Control Structures

In assembly, the only flow control mechanisms are branching and calling. So every control structure is built up from a combination of goto's and conditional branches. Lets look at some specific examples.

Function Calls

So we've mentioned that function calls use the stack to pass arguments. But where does that leave return values? And what about local variables?

Local variables are also on the stack, just below the base pointer instead of above. But if you thought that a return value was a pop off of the stack, you were wrong! GCC places the return value of a particular function into the eax register at the end of that function. Upon calling a function with a return value, it knows to copy the eax register into whatever variable will store that return value.

So lets see some gcc output for function calls. Get your paper ready, we're going to need to draw our stack and register table to follow these. Yeah yeah, it seems like a hassle, and you're sure you can do without it. We know, we know. But humor us. If you at least practice the methodical way a few times, doing things in your head will become easier later.

gcc 2.95 Example .c file and gcc output with no optimization, with -O2, and with -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer To get the most out of these examples, start at main, and trace execution throughout the executable. Do the low optimization first, and then move up to higher levels. The comments assume you are progressing in that order. FIXME: We may want to split these out into several simpler example files, to avoid overwhelming people all at once.

gcc 3.3.2 The same files are also compiled with gcc version 3.3.2 and the corresponding files are functions.c, no optimization, -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer.

The if statement

The if statement is represented in assembly as a test followed by a jump. The thing to notice is that sometimes the body of the if statement is what is jumped to, as opposed to being jumped over as your C code may specify. This means that the condition for the jump will often be the negation of the condition for your if statement.

gcc 2.95 Example .c file and gcc output with no optimization, with -O2, and with -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

gcc 3.3.2 The same files are also compiled with gcc version 3.3.2 and the corresponding files are if.c, no optimization, -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer.

The if..else statement

So we've seen that if statements are usually done by doing a single jump over the statement body. If..else statements operate the same way, except with an unconditional jump at the end of the if statement body that diverts execution flow to the end of the else body.

gcc 2.95 Example .c file and gcc output with no optimization, with -O2, and with -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

gcc 3.3.2 ifelse.c, no optimization, -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

If..else..if statements

Adding another if in an else clause works the same way as having an if statement inside an else clause. We just simply jump to another label if it evaluates to false, and if the first if statement evaluates as true, at the bottom of it we simply jump past both the else if and any remaining else clauses.

gcc 2.95 Example .c file and gcc output with no optimization, with -O2, and with -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

gcc 3.3.2 ifelseif.c, no optimization, -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

Complicated if statements

Of course, if statements can get much more complicated than the above examples. They can contain boolean short-circuits, function calls, nested-ifs, etc.

The while loop

Think about the while loop for a second. Think about how it operates. Basically, you could write a while loop with an if and a goto statement inside the if body to the top of the loop. So, since the only branching mechanisms we have in assembly are jumps and calls, while loops are just if statements with a jmp back to the top at the bottom.

gcc 2.95 Example .c file and gcc output with no optimization, with -O2, and with -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

gcc 3.3.2 while.c, no optimization, -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

The for loop

So lets rewrite the above loop as a for loop, to see if our professors were lying to us when they said these loops were equivalent.

gcc 2.95 Example .c file and gcc output with no optimization, with -O2, and with -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

gcc 3.3.2 for.c, no optimization, -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

The do...while loop

Do while loops are a bit different than for and while loops in that they allow execution of the loop body to occur at least once. As such, their comparison instructions take place at the bottom of the loop as opposed to the top. Observe:

gcc 2.95 Example .c file and gcc output with no optimization, with -O2, and with -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

gcc 3.3.2 dowhile.c, no optimization, -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer


Arrays on the stack

Arrays on the stack are just memory regions that we access with variations on the disp(%base, %index, scale) idea presented earlier. So lets start with a warm-up consisting of a simple char array where we let libc do all the work.

gcc 2.95 Example .c file and gcc output with no optimization, with -O2, and with -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

gcc 3.3.2 array-stack-char.c, no optimization, -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

So lets do another example where we do all the work. One dimensional arrays are the easiest, as they are simply a chunk of memory that is the number of elements times the size of each element.

gcc 2.95 Example .c file and gcc output with no optimization, with -O2, and with -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

gcc 3.3.2 array-stack-int1D.c, no optimization, -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

Two dimensional arrays are actually just an abstraction that makes working with memory easier in C. A 2D array on the stack is just one long 1D array that the C compiler divides for us to make it manageable. To parameterize things, an array declared as: type array[dim2][dim1]; is really a 1D array of length dim2*dim1*type. The C compiler handles array indexing as follows: array[i][j] is the memory location array + i*dim1*type + j*type. So it divides our 1D array into dim2 sections, each dim1*type long.

FIXME: Graphics to illustrate this.

gcc 2.95 Example .c file and gcc output with no optimization, with -O2, and with -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

gcc 3.3.2 array-stack-int2D.c, no optimization, -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

As I tell my introductory computer science students, the best way to think of higher dimensional arrays is to think of a set of arrays of the next lower dimension. So the best way to think about how a 3D array can be jammed into a 1D array is to think about how a set of 2D arrays would be jammed into a 1D array: one right after another. So for array declared as type array[dim3][dim2][dim1];, array[i][j][k] means array + i*dim2*dim1*type + j*dim1*type + k*type. So this means just by looking at the assembly multiplications of the indexing variables, we should be able to determine n-1 dimensions of any n dimensional array. The remaining dimension can be determined from the total size, or the bounds of some initialization loop.

FIXME: Diagram/graphics to show this

gcc 2.95 Example .c file and gcc output with no optimization, with -O2, and with -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

gcc 3.3.2 array-stack-int3D.c, no optimization, -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

Arrays through malloc


Using structs

Structures (structs) are a convenient way of managing related variables without having to write a class to encapsulate all of them. A structure is essentially a class without any member functions. Structures are used VERY often in C in order to avoid passing several variables back and forth between functions. Instead of passing all the variables, a common practice is to encapsulate all of them in a struct and just pass the location of the struct in memory to the function that needs access to those variables. Structures in C++ are declared like this:

      struct a
         int first;
         float second;
         char *third;

Don't forget that ; after the last brace. Structs can store any type of variable that you would normally be able to declare anywhere in your program. To access a variable in a struct you use the dot (.) operator. For example, to assign 5 to the variable first in the struct a, do

     a.first = 5;

Arrays of structs

Arrays of structs are created just as you would create an array of any other variable. Using the declaration of a above, an array of a structs of size 10 would be declared like this:

       struct a stuctarray[10];

Note the use of the struct keyword, followed by the name of the struct declared, followed by the name of the array.

The code above declares a static array of structs. This means that space will be allocated for this array during load time (FIXME: Check this). Struct arrays can also be declared as pointers so that space for individual elements can be allocated at run time as it is needed. (FIXME: Um...how is this done?...time to brush up on C).

Passing structs

Returning structs

GCC handles structs a bit oddly. When you have a function that returns a struct, what gcc does is actually push the address of the struct onto the stack just before calling the function (as if the first argument to the function was a pointer to the struct that will contain the return i value). Then, inside the function, code is generated to modify the struct through this address. At the end of the function, the value of %eax contains a pointer to the struct that was passed on to the stack. So instead of the normal convention of having %eax store the return value, %eax stores a pointer to the return value, and the return value is modified directly inside of the function.

gcc 2.95 Example .c file and gcc output with no optimization, with -O2, and with -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

gcc 3.3.2 struct.c, no optimization, -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer

Classes (ie C++ code)

C with Classes


Virtual functions

Operator Overloading


Global variables


These examples were all compiled using GCC 2.95.4 under Debian 3.0/Testing. A good exercise would be to go compile some of these examples with GCC 3.0 under high optimizations, changing some things around and viewing the resulting asm to get a feel for that new compiler and how it does things, as code it generates will begin to become more ubiquitous as time goes on. It was still considered rather unstable as of this writing, so we opted for the older GCC for all these examples for that reason.

Writing Inline Assembly

Calling Conventions


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Cypress Integrated Circuit (ic) Crack view more types...
  CY2xx series integrated circuit ic crack: CY2071A CY2077FZ CY2291F CY2292F CY2292FZ CY22050F CY22150F CY22381F CY22392F CY22393F CY22394F CY22395F CY25100FS CY2907F14 CY2907F8 ...
CY6xx series integrated circuit ic crack: CY63000 CY63001 CY63100 CY63101 CY63200 CY63201 CY63221 CY63231 CY63410 CY63411 CY63412 CY63413 CY63510 CY63511 CY63512 CY63612 CY63613 CY63722 CY63723 CY63742 CY63743 CY63823... CY64XXX Series: CY64011 CY64012 CY64013 ...
CY7Cxx series integrated circuit ic lockbit crack: CY7C63000 CY7C63001 CY7C63100 CY7C63101 CY7C63200 CY7C63201 CY7C63221 CY7C63231 CY7C63231 CY7C63410 CY7C63411 CY7C63412 CY7C63413 CY7C63510 CY7C63511 CY7C63512 CY7C63513 CY7C63612 CY7C63613 CY7C63722 CY7C63723 CY7C63742 CY7C63743 CY7C63801 CY7C63813 CY7C63823 CY7C64011 CY7C64012 CY7C64111 CY7C64112 CY7C64113 CY7C65013 CY7C65113 ...
CY8Cxx series integrated circuit ic crack: CY8C21001 CY8C21234 CY8C21323 CY8C21334 CY8C21434 CY8C21634 CY8C9520 CY8C9540 CY8C9560 CY8C22113 CY8C24094 CY8C24123 CY8C24123 CY8C24223 CY8C24223 CY8C24423 CY8C24423 CY8C24794 CY8C24894 CY8C24994 CY8C24123A CY8C24223A CY8C24423A CY8C25122 CY8C26233 CY8C26443 CY8C27143 CY8C27143 CY8C27243 CY8C27243 CY8C27443 CY8C27466 CY8C27543 CY8C27566 CY8C27643 CY8C27643 CY8C27666 CY8C29466 CY8C29566 CY8C29666 CY8C29866 CY8C21534 CY8C22213 ...
PAL10/12/14/16xx series integrated circuit ic crack: PAL10HI8 PAL10L8 PAL10P8 PAL12HI6 PAL12L6 PAL12L10 PAL12P6 PAL14L4 PAL14L8 PAL14P4 PAL14P8 PAL14H4 PAL14H8 PAL16R4 PAL16R6 PAL16R8 PAL16H2 PAL16H6 PAL16P6 PAL16L2 PAL16L6 PAL16L8 PAL16P2 PAL16P8 PAL16V8 PAL16V8B PAL16RP4 PAL16RP6 PAL16RP8 PAL16A4 PAL16C1 PAL16X4 PAL16RA8 ...
PAL18/20/22xx series integrated circuit ic crack: PAL18L4 PAL18H4 PAL18P4 PAL18P8 PAL20C1 PAL20H2 PAL20L2 PAL20L4 PAL20L6 PAL20L8 PAL20L10 PAL20X10 PAL20R2 PAL20R4 PAL20R6 PAL20R8 PAL20V8 PAL20V8H PAL20R10 PAL20P1 PAL20P2 PAL20P8 PAL20RS4 PAL20RS8 PAL20RS10 PAL20RP4 PAL20RP6 PAL20RP8 PAL20RP10 PAL22V8 PAL22V10 PAL22V10D ...
Elan Integrated Circuit (ic) firmware Attack view more types...
  EMC EM78xx series integrated circuit ic attack: EM78156E EM78447S EM78448C EM78806B EM78448 EM78450 EM78451 EM78458 EM78576 EM78568 EM78569 EM78459 EM78800 EM78806 EM78808 EM78810 EM78811 EM78813 EM78815 EM78820 EM78860 EM78861 EM78862 EM78863 EM78865 EM78870 EM78911 EM78912 ...
EMC EM78Pxx series integrated circuit ic lockbit attack: EM78P153 EM78P156 EM78P257 EM78P447 EM78P451 EM78P452 EM78P458 EM78P459 EM78P468 EM78P5839 EM78P5840 EM78P5841 EM78P5842 EM78P154N EM78P156N EM78P157N EM78P159N EM78P259N EM78P259N EM78P260N EM78P417N EM78P418N EM78P419N EM78P447N EM78P468N EM78P468L EM78P510N EM78P809N EM78P5840N EN78P5841N EM78P5842N EM78P565 EM78P566 EM78P567 EM78P568 EM78P569 EM78P5830 EM78P806 EM78P808 EM78P811 EM78P813 EM78P870 EM78P911 ...
Fujitsu MCU Dump view more types...
  MB90F3XX Series controller duplicate: MB90F334 MB90F335 MB90F337 MB90F342 MB90F343 MB90F345 MB90F346 MB90F347 MB90F349 MB90F394HA MB90F351 MB90F352 MB90F356 MB90F357 ...
MB90F4XX Series mcu lockbit dump: MB90MF408 MB90F423 MB90F428 MB90F443G MB90F438L MB90F439 MB90F455 MB90F456 MB90F457 MB90F462 MB90F463 MB90F481B MB90F482B MB90F488B MB90F489B MB90F497G MB90F498G...
MB90F5XX Series controller duplicate: MB90F543G MB90F548G MB90F549G MB90F546G MB90F562 MB90F568 MB90F591G MB90F594G MB90F598G...
MB90F5XX Series mcu dump: MB90F804 MB90F809 MB90F822B MB90F823B MB90F828B MB90F867E MB90F882A MB90F883B MB90F883BH MB90F883C MB90F884B MB90F884BH MB90F884C MB90F897 ...
Freescale/Motorola MCU Crack view more types...
  HC908 Series MCU Hack: HC908AB32 HC908AP8 HC908AP16 HC908AP32 HC908AP64 HC908AZ60 HC908JK1 HC908JK3 HC908JK8 HC908JK32 HC908JW16 HC908JW32 HC908LK24 HC908MR8 HC908GR8 HC908QT1 HC908QT2 HC908QT4 HC908QY1 HC908QY2 HC908QY4 HC908RF2 HC908RK2 ...
MC908 Series MCU Reverse Engineer: MC908AB32 MC908AP8 MC908AP16 MC908AP32 MC908AP48 MC908AP64 MC908AS32 MC908AS60 MC908AZ32 MC908AZ60 MC908BD48 MC908EY8 MC908EY16 MC908GR16 MC908GR32 MC908GR48 MC908GR60 MC908GZ16 MC908GZ32 MC908GZ48 MC908GZ60 MC908GP8 MC908GP16 MC908GP32 MC908GR4 MC908GR8 MC908GR16 MC908GR32 MC908GR48 MC908GR60 MC908GT8 MC908GT16 ...
MC68HC05 Series MCU Hack: MC68HC05B6 MC68HC05B8 MC68HC05B16 MC68HC05B32 MC68HC05BD3 MC68HC05BD5 MC68HC05BD7 MC68HC05BD24 MC68HC05BD32 MC68HC05C0 MC68HC05C2 MC68HC05C4 MC68HC05C8 MC68HC05C9 MC68HC05C12 MC68HC05CC MC68HC05CJ4 MC68HC05CL1 MC68HC05CL4 MC68HC05D9 MC68HC05D32 MC68HC05E0 MC68HC05E5 MC68HC05E6 MC68HC05F4 MC68HC05F8 MC68HC05F12 MC68HC05F24 MC68HC05G3 ...
MC68HC705 Series controller Reverse Engineer: MC68HC705B16 MC68HC705C4 MC68HC705C8 MC68HC705C9 MC68HC705CCVFB MC68HC705CJ4 MC68HC705CL4 MC68HC705CT4 MC68HC705J1 MC68HC705J2 MC68HC705J5 MC68HC705JB2 MC68HC705JB4 MC68HC705JJ7 MC68HC705JP7 MC68HC705K1 MC68HC705KJ1CDW ...
MC68HC11 Series MCU read out memory: MC68HC11A0 MC68HC11A1 MC68HC11A8 MC68HC11C0 MC68HC11L0 MC68HC11L1 MC68HC11L2 MC68HC11M2 MC68HC11D0 MC68HC11D3 MC68HC11E0 MC68HC11E1 MC68HC11E8 MC68HC11E9 MC68HC11E18 MC68HC11E20 MC68HC11EA9 MC68HC11ED0 MC68HC11EVBU2 MC68HC11F1 MC68HC11FC0 MC68HC11FL0 ...
MC68HC711 Series MCU retreive source code: MC68HC711D3 MC68HC711E9 MC68HC711E20 MCMC68HC711M2 MCMC68HC711MA8 MC68HC711K4 MC68HC711KA2 MC68HC711KS2 MC68HC711KS8 MCMC68HC711L6 MCMC68HC711P2 MCMC68HC711SA2FG MCMC68HC711FA2 ...
MC68HC08 Series controller Hack: MC68HC08AB16A MC68HC08AB32 MC68HC08AS32 68HC08AS32A MC68HC08AZ16 MC68HC08AZ24 MC68HC08AZ32 MC68HC08AZ48 MC68HC08AZ60 MC68HC08BD24 MC68HC08GP8 MC68HC08GP16 MC68HC08GP32 MC68HC08JB1 MC68HC08JB8 MC68HC08JB16 ...
MC68HC908 Series MCU duplication: MC68HC908AP64 MC68HC908AP32 MC68HC908AP16 MC68HC908AP8 MC68HC908AS32A MC68HC908AZ60A MC68HC908AS60A MC68HC908AZ60E MC68HC908AS60 MC68HC908BD48 MC68HC908EY16A MC68HC908EY8A MC68HC908GR4 MC68HC908GR8 MC68HC908GR16 MC68HC908GT8 MC68HC908GT16 ...
MC9S08 Series MCU Hack: MC9S08AC8 MC9S08AC16 MC9S08AC32 MC9S08AC48 MC9S08AC60 MC9S08AC96 MC9S08AC128 MC9S08AW16 MC9S08AW32 MC9S08AW48 MC9S08AW60 MC9S08DN16 MC9S08DN32 MC9S08DN48 MC9S08DN60 MC9S08DV16 MC9S08DV32 MC9S08DV48 MC9S08DV60 MC9S08DV96 MC9S08DV128 MC9S08DZ16 MC9S08DZ32 MC9S08DZ48 MC9S08DZ60 ...
MC9S12 Series controller Reverse Engineer: MC9S12A32 MC9S12A64 MC9S12A128 MC9S12A256 MC9S12A512 MC9S12B32 MC9S12B64 MC9S12B96 MC9S12B128 MC9S12B256 MC9S12C32 MC9S12C64 MC9S12C96 MC9S12C128 MC9S12D32 MC9S12D64 MC9S12D96 MC9S12DB64 MC9S12DB128 MC9S12DG128 MC9S12DG256 MC9S12DJ64 MC9S12DJ128 MC9S12DJ256 ...
DSP56 Series MCU read memory: DSP56F801X DSP56F802X DSP56F803X DSP56852 DSP56853 DSP56854 DSP56855 DSP56857 DSP56858 DSP56F801 DSP56F801FA60 DSP56F802 DSP56F802TA60 DSP56F803 DSP56F805 DSP56F807 ...
MC56F Series MCU Reverse Engineer: MC56F801X MC56F802X MC56F803X MC56F800X MC56F8023M MC56F8023V MC56F8025M MC56F8025V MC56F8027M MC56F8027V MC56F8033M MC56F8033V MC56F8035M MC56F8035V MC56F8036M MC56F8036V MC56F8037M MC56F8037V ...
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More MCU brands we can reverse engineer below, please contact us if yours not listed here:
AMD Feeling LG / Hyundai Myson STK
ChipON Hynix Mitsubishi National Semi Temic
Coreriver ICSI Mosel Vitelic Portek Toshiba
Dallas ISSI MXIC SSSC Gal / Pal / Palce
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